About PCOS

2 December 2015

About PCOS

Polycystic ovaries (PCO)

In a normal ovary, one or two small developing follicles are seen whereas in a polycystic ovary many follicles are present. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) means a combination of 2 or 3 of the following:

  • irregular periods
  • increased hair growth or acne or raised levels of male hormones
  • polycystic ovaries.

PCOS is very common in women from India and the Middle East, and occurs in around 5-8% of Caucasian, Maori and Polynesian women, but is rare in Asian women.


Symptoms vary with severity of the syndrome, ethnicity, and lifestyle. Persistent acne, increased body hair and irregular periods result from increased androgen (male hormone) production by the polyfollicular ovary.

Both lean and overweight women can have PCOS.

Lean women with PCOS will have symptoms from puberty. Heavier women may not experience PCOS symptoms in their teens, while maintaining a fit and lean physique and may only develop menstrual irregularity when they lead a more sedentary lifestyle after school, that leads to weight gain which in turn exacerbates androgen levels and symptoms.

Health Risks 

PCOS is associated with longer term health risks, including diabetes (especially those with a family history), raised blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol, sub fertility and cancer of the womb. Mostly these can be avoided or delayed by a healthy lifestyle, such as not smoking, maintaining a strong exercise ethic, and avoiding weight gain. 

What causes PCOS?

We don’t really know what causes PCOS and it seems unlikely to be just one factor. Genes do matter - brothers and sisters of women with PCOS often have similar changes in their blood tests. 

What to do when PCOS is diagnosed....

PCOS is managed rather than cured. Early diagnosis is encouraged. Women with PCOS should try to:

  • maintain significant levels of exercise to retain a slim BMI (body mass index)(ideal BMI 19-22) so that the risks of type 2 diabetes and subfertility are minimised.
  • antiandrogen therapy to block male hormone production helps women with acne and hirsutism.
  • subfertility is not inevitable but may relate to infrequent ovulation. PCOS women with abdominal weight gain will often recommence regular ovulatory periods with more exercise and weight loss.
  • very lean PCOS women may need assistance to ovulate and there are several interventions which are useful.
  • PCOS women should be aware, however, that they may be more at risk of pregnancy related complications especially gestational diabetes.
  • don’t ignore irregular periods as this can increase risk of cancer of the womb.
  • consider trying for a pregnancy by around 30 years age so that age related factors are not an additional issue.

Seek expert medical help. If you are not pregnant after 3- 6 months of trying, especially if you are lean and/or have irregular periods.